Widely believed and cited, the first statement of the above needs amending slightly. An experienced individual who is promoted to a higher position — or who pushes himself forward — also needs a slightly more forceful personality — more testosterone — than the remainder of his group colleagues. Evolution has averaged this out over millions of years to about one every eighth or ninth male. More frequent than this, then political dissentions for leadership ensure that the friends, wives and children of the two gather behind two candidates and the tribe divides into two.
Outstandingly successful leaders need more than experience or forcefulness — they need to be influential. As they are promoted into groups of higher political and business power they will evince many more subtle qualities — responsibility, honesty, intensive work, openness to possible solutions — and, above all, versatility in socialising efficiently with all sorts of other personalities, whether friendly or hostile.
Whereas governments and business leaders can manipulate the enterprise conditions for the rise and fall of the ordinary forceful — every seventh or eighth male — they can do nothing for those who are more likely one in every 70 thousands born. Their personalities were laid down in their earliest years of life by parents, or nannies and are beyond modification.