Angus Deaton, after a lifetime of dedicated studies into poverty — for which he received a Nobel Prize — and whose conclusions have never been questioned — came to the conclusion that the best possible form of aid is that which is defined by the recipient. The most effective aid of all are not grand schemes which big donors like to take credit for, but modest ones which at the lowest levels this can lift up individuals and families out of semi-starvation and across the threshold where some spare energy is available,
It is also well documented that almost all government aid since the Second World War has ended up the pockets of the politicians and officials in the recipient countries.
Also, a great deal of large-scale aid by the larger charities, while assuaging suffering dramatically in the short term, inevitably store up more problems a generation later.
All cultures are intractable and are fiercely resistant to change, whatever their standard of living, They can only build themselves up from their own resources and vitality — if they want to. More correctly if they if they have enough rare creative types among them with more testosterone than usual and who wishes to be a merchant or a intellectual –and, importantly are tolerated. If a counry wants to change the culture of another counry then this can only be done by encouraging the merchant by trade orf loans, ot the intellectual by advanced training,